Effects of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia) Essential Oil Aromatherapy on Mood States, Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity and Salivary Cortisol Levels in 41 Healthy Females
Forsch Komplementmed. 2015;22(1):43-9. doi: 10.1159/000380989. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
(1)Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan. Watanabe E(1), Kuchta K, Kimura M, Rauwald HW, Kamei T, Imanishi J.
BACKGROUND: Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is commonly used against psychological stress and anxiety in aromatherapy. The primary aim of the present study was to obtain first clinical evidence for these psychological and physiological effects. A secondary aim was to achieve some fundamental understanding of the relevant pharmacological processes.
METHODS: Endocrinological, physiological, and psychological effects of BEO vapor inhalation on 41 healthy females were tested using a random crossover study design. Volunteers were exposed to 3 experimental setups (rest (R), rest + water vapor (RW), rest + water vapor + bergamot essential oil (RWB)) for 15 min each. Immediately after each setup, saliva samples were collected and the volunteers rested for 10 min. Subsequently, they completed the Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Fatigue Self Check List. High-frequency (HF) heart rate values, an indicator for parasympathetic nervous system activity, were calculated from heart rate variability values measured both during the 15 min of the experiment and during the subsequent 10 min of rest. Salivary cortisol (CS) levels in the saliva samples were analyzed using ELISA.
RESULTS: CS of all 3 conditions R, RW, and RWB were found to be significantly distinct (p = 0.003). In the subsequent multiple comparison test, the CS value of RWB was significantly lower when compared to the R setup. When comparing the HF values of the RWB setup during the 10 min of rest after the experiment to those of RW, this parameter was significantly increased (p = 0.026) in the RWB setup for which scores for negative emotions and fatigue were also improved.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that BEO inhaled together with water vapor exerts psychological and physiological effects in a relatively short time.
© 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
PMID: 25824404 [PubMed - in process]